Descendants of Legendary Atlantis

by
Constantin Benetatos

Are Northern Europeans more pure descendants
of the Atlanteans than their Mediterranean counterparts?

A. QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTED ANSWERS

1.WHERE WAS THE LOST ISLAND OF ATLANTIS LOCATED?ACCORDING TO PLATO, THE ISLAND OF ATLANTIS, WHICH WAS LARGER THAN LYBIA AND ASIA COMBINED, WAS LOCATED BEYOND THE PILLARS OF HERACLES.

    A) AN ISLAND OF THIS SIZE CERTAINLY WOULD NOT FIT ANY PLACE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN.B) AN ISLAND OF THIS SIZE WOULD FIT IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN WEST AND BEYOND THE PILLARS OF HERACLES. HOWEVER, THE OCEAN FLOOR THERE IS TOO DEEP AND ACCORDING TO BATHYMETRIC MEASUREMENTS, THERE ARE NO TRACES THAT SUCH AN ISLAND EVER EXISTED. (EXCEPT IF THE ATLANTEANS HAD DISCOVERED THE SECRETS OF GRAVITY AS SOME DREAMERS LIKE TO IMAGINE, AND DURING SOME FAILED EXPERIMENT THE WHOLE ISLAND WAS FLUNG OUT INTO SPACE).C) ANOTHER POSSIBLE LOCATION, AS SOME SCHOLARS SUGGEST, IS THE CELTIC SHELF. THE AREA IS LARGE ENOUGH, BUT IT IS VERY HARD TO BELIEVE THAT THE WEATHER CONDITIONS WOULD BE AGREEABLE FOR SUCH A GREAT CIVILIZATION TO FLOURISH. ONE MUST CONSIDER THE PREVAILING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE PROXIMITY OF THE ICE SHEET.D) THE WATERS IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN ARE DEEP, AS ARE THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN WATERS WEST TO THE ISLAND OF CRETE.E) PROVIDED WE DISREGARD THE GIVEN SIZE OF ATLANTIS THE ONLY VIABLE POSSIBILITY COULD BE IN THE SOUTHERN AEGEAN AS SOME SCHOLARS SUGGEST. SPECIFICALLY, A REGION NORTH OF THE ISLAND OF CRETE IN AN AREA A LITTLE SMALLER THAN THE SIZE OF PELOPONESSUS (THE SO CALLED “CYCLADES PLATEAU) WHICH IS NOW COVERED BY THE SEA WITH THE EXCEPTION OF A FEW PRESENT DAY ISLANDS JUTTING OVER THE WATER LEVEL.

2. ARE THERE OTHER PLACES IN THE WORLD THAT MET THE SAME FATE AS ATLANTIS?

A) THERE ARE MANY FOLK LEGENDS THAT REFER TO ANCIENT CATACLYSMS. THIS IS TRUE BECAUSE AS THE ICE SHEETS RETREATED THE WATER LEVEL OF THE OCEANS ROSE A FEW HUNDRED FEET, FLOODING THE LOW COASTAL AREAS.

3. WHAT RELIGION DID THE ATLANTEANS PRACTICE AND WHAT LANGUAGE DID THEY SPEAK?

A) THE ATLANTEANS WORSHIPED POSEIDON AND, OF COURSE, CLEITO WHOSE SEED THEY BELIEVED THEY WERE FROM.

B) THE LANGUAGE THEY SPOKE MUST HAVE BEEN THE ANCIENT COMMON EUROPEAN LANGUAGE PROBABLY SPOKEN AND UNDERSTOOD THROUGHOUT THE ATLANTEAN DOMAIN.

4. WHAT KIND AND WHAT RACE OF PEOPLE WERE THE ATLANTEANS?

A) THE ATLANTEANS WERE OF THE CAUCASIAN RACE. SOMEDAY THE RUINS AND STATUES WHICH THEY LEFT BEHIND, WHICH ARE NOW COVERED BY WATER AND SILT, WILL BE UNCOVERED AND RAISED TO BECOME TESTIMONY FOR THE KIND OF PEOPLE THEY WERE.

B) THE ATLANTEANS WERE CIVILIZED , KIND, AND OBEDIENT TO THEIR LAWS FOR A VERY LONG PERIOD OF TIME. SOME DAY WE MAY KNOW IF THEY USED OTHER HUMANS AS SLAVES . WE CAN ONLY GUESS WHAT MADE THEM CHANGE THEIR ATTITUDE AT THE END.

5. ARE THERE ANY DESCENDANTS OF THE LEGENDARY ATLANTEANS TODAY?

A) OF COURSE THERE ARE. THIS SUBJECT WILL BE ADDRESSED AT THE END.

6. WHEN DID ATLANTIS VANISH?

A) SOME 11,500 TO 15,000 YEARS BEFORE PRESENT.

7. WHAT WAS THE LEVEL OF ATLANTEAN TECHNOLOGY?

A) CONSIDERING PLATO’S DESCRIPTION , PROBABLY MUCH HIGHER THAN THE ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN TECHNOLOGY.

8. WHAT CAN THE PRESENT DAY EUROPEAN LANGUAGES TELL US ABOUT ATLANTIS?

A) PEOPLE WHO SPEAK TWO OR MORE EUROPEAN LANGUAGES EASILY RECOGNIZE EUROPEAN LANGUAGE SIMILARITIES. GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION, THE PASSING OF THE EONS, AND THE MAN-MADE BORDERS (FOR PERSONAL GAINS) HAD A DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THE SPOKEN WORD. WITH THIS IN MIND, WE CAN EASILY CONCLUDE THAT AT LEAST ALL THE EUROPEAN LANGUAGES HAVE AN ATLANTEAN ORIGIN.

 

B. ICE AGE AND SOUTHERN MIGRATION.

SCIENTISTS AND OTHER EXPERTS INDICATE THAT THE LAST ICE AGE STARTED ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY THOUSAND YEARS AGO AND ENDED SOME TEN TO TWENTY THOUSAND YEARS BEFORE PRESENT. THE ICE AGE MAY HAVE STARTED SLOWLY OR ABRUPTLY. IF THE START WAS GRADUAL, BOTH THE HUMANS AND ANIMALS OF NORTHERN EUROPE MAY HAVE HAD A GOOD CHANCE TO MIGRATE SOUTHWARD TO WARMER CLIMATES. THE ONES WHO DID NOT OR COULD NOT JUST PERISHED. IN SOME AREAS THE SNOW ACCUMULATION MUST HAVE BEEN VERY RAPID AND SEVERE. FROZEN WOOLLY MAMMOTHS WERE DISCOVERED IN SIBERIA STILL STANDING ON THEIR FEET. THE ICE SHEET EVENTUALLY COVERED MOST OF NORTHEASTERN EUROPE. THE GULF STREAM MUST HAVE INFLUENCED THE WEATHER CONDITIONS IN WESTERN EUROPE AT THE TIME AND PROBABLY KEPT PORTIONS OF THE CELTIC SHELF FREE FROM ICE.

THE EARLY HUMAN POPULATION IN EUROPE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE ICE AGE, CONSISTED OF MOSTLY HUNTER-GATHERERS, AND VARIED FROM A FEW THOUSAND TO NO MORE THAN A HUNDRED THOUSAND SOULS. FOOD SUPPLY, NATURAL DISASTERS, AND DISEASE WERE ALL INFLUENTIAL IN KEEPING THE HUMAN POPULATION IN CHECK.

WE CAN ONLY GUESS WHAT THEIR SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND COMMUNICATIONAL SKILLS WERE. APPARENTLY THEY LIVED IN GROUPS CONSISTING OF SEVERAL FAMILIES MOVING WITHIN THEIR OWN BORDERS AND OVERLAPPING OTHER TERRITORIES MARKED BY NATURAL BOUNDARIES SUCH AS RIVERS AND MOUNTAINS. SLOW MIGRATION WAS AN ONGOING PROCESS THAT WAS INFLUENCED MAINLY BY WEATHER CONDITIONS AND FOOD SUPPLY. WE MIGHT IMAGINE OF THESE NOMADIC PEOPLE TO BE BRUTES READY TO DEFEND THEMSELVES AND ATTACK OTHERS WHO CROSSED THEIR PATH , OR WE MAY THINK OF THEM AS MORE GENTLE WITH A MORE PEACEFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS COEXISTENCE WITH THE OTHER GROUPS LIVING IN THE NEXT VALLEY OR OVER THE MOUNTAIN. SIMILARITIES MAY BE DRAWN FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, THE ABORIGINES OF AUSTRALIA, THE PYGMIES OF AFRICA AND THE IRIAN JAYA OF INDONESIA. SOME OF THE AFORESAID GROUPS PRACTICED HUMAN SACRIFICE AND OR CANNIBALISM. NO ONE REALLY KNOWS IF THE EARLY EUROPEANS DID THE SAME. INBREEDING MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN A PROBLEM, DUE TO THE FACT THAT THEY WERE CONSTANTLY ON THE MOVE (PROBABLY BARTERING TOOLS AND HUNTING IMPLEMENTS).

THEIR EVERYDAY LANGUAGE, ALTHOUGH LIMITED, WAS MORE THAN ENOUGH TO COMMUNICATE DURING HUNTING EXPEDITIONS AND TO PERFORM THEIR SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONS. THIS PROTO-LANGUAGE MUST HAVE BEEN USED AND MUST HAVE BEEN UNDERSTOOD BY ALL PROTO-EUROPEANS AS THEY MOVED AROUND MINGLING WITH EACH OTHER AND THEN SEPARATING AGAIN. THERE WERE CERTAINLY PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS, ESPECIALLY IN ALPINE AREAS IN SOUTHERN EUROPE, THAT WERE MOSTLY COVERED BY TREES. SOME ARCHAEOLOGISTS SUGGEST THAT THESE PROTO-EUROPEANS REVERED AND BURIED THEIR DEAD.

AS THE ICE AGE PROGRESSED AND THEY WERE HARD PRESSED BY THE COLD AND LACK OF GAME, MANY GROUPS WERE FORCED TO SEEK NEW TERRITORIES TO THE SOUTH WHERE THEY COULD HUNT AND LIVE. THEIR CONTACT WITH THE LOCAL INHABITANTS, ESPECIALLY THE ONES IN PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS, MAY HAVE BEEN PEACEFUL OR VIOLENT. THERE WERE CERTAINLY WINNERS AND LOSERS.

WAS THEIR EXPERIENCE / INTELLIGENCE HIGHER, THE SAME, OR LOWER COMPARED TO THOSE FROM THE SOUTH, ESPECIALLY THE ONES IN THE PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS? WERE THERE ANY PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTHERNERS AND THE ONES FROM THE SOUTH?

AT THE TIME, THE NEANDERTHALS AND HOMO SAPIENS OCCUPIED THE SAME TERRITORIES. DID THE HOMO SAPIENS PREVAIL DUE TO THEIR HIGHER INTELLIGENCE? BECAUSE THEIR NOMADIC WAY OF LIFE BROUGHT ALL THESE GROUPS IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER, THEIR PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS MUST HAVE BEEN SIMILAR.

C. LAND EXPOSURE DUE TO GLACIATION

AS THE ICE AGE REACHED ITS MAXIMUM, THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN POLAR ICE CAPS BECAME LARGER AND THICKER. IN SOME AREAS THE ICE MIGHT HAVE MEASURED SEVERAL MILES THICK. THIS ACCUMULATION OF ICE CAUSED THE OCEAN LEVELS WORLDWIDE TO DROP ONE HUNDRED TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY METERS OR MORE, EXPOSING NEW LAND AREAS THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY COVERED BY WATER. IN OTHER AREAS, LAND-BRIDGES WERE EXPOSED BETWEEN CONTINENTS AND LOW LYING LAND MASSES. ONE SUCH LAND-BRIDGE WAS EXPOSED AT THE PILLARS OF HERACLES BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE. THIS LAND BRIDGE STOPPED THE FLOW OF ATLANTIC OCEAN WATER INTO THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN. EVEN THE WATERS OF THE NILE AND OTHER RIVERS WERE NOT ENOUGH TO REPLENISH THE WATER IN THE MEDITERRANEAN LOST TO EVAPORATION.

THIS EVENT HAD A DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THE WATER LEVEL CAUSING IT TO DROP EVEN FURTHER. ANOTHER LAND BRIDGE MIGHT HAVE FORMED BETWEEN THE PRESENT DAY TUNIS AND SICILY, THUS CREATING TWO INLAND SEAS. NOW WE HAVE TWO EVENTS THAT WERE TAKING PLACE SIMULTANEOUSLY: THE ICE SHEET IN NORTHERN EUROPE WAS COMPRESSING THE LAND UNDERNEATH IT, AND NEW LAND WAS EXPOSED TO THE SOUTH DUE TO THE REDUCTION OF THE WATER LEVEL AND THE DIMINISHING PRESSURE ON THE UNDERLYING FLOOR. MOST OF THE LAND EXPOSED IN SOUTHERN EUROPE WOULD BE IN THE ADRIATIC BASIN, IN THE AEGEAN AND ALSO IN THE BLACK SEA AROUND CRIMEA. THE LAND TO THE SOUTH WAS NOT ONLY EXPOSED DUE TO GLACIATION AS PREVIOUSLY STATED, BUT ALSO ROSE TENS OF FEET DUE TO THE COMPRESSIVE FORCES OF THE ICE SHEET TO THE NORTH, AND THE DECREASED VOLUME OF WATER IN THE MEDITERRANEAN , WHICH MEANT LESS PRESSURE ON THE SEA FLOOR.

D. LOWERING OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA LEVEL.

THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA LEVEL MUST HAVE DROPPED FROM ONE HUNDRED FIFTY TO THREE HUNDRED METERS OR MORE. SEVERAL YEARS AGO, BY CHANCE DIVERS FOUND SUBMERGED ENTRANCES (BELOW SEA LEVEL) IN SOUTHERN FRANCE, WHICH SUBSEQUENTLY LED THEM TO DISCOVER THE NOW FAMOUS PREHISTORIC CAVE PAINTINGS THERE. THERE ARE MANY MAN-MADE STONE STRUCTURES AROUND THE MEDITERRANEAN THAT ARE NOW UNDER WATER AS WELL.

E. EARLY CIVILIZATION.

THOUSANDS OF YEARS WENT BY AFTER THE LAST ICE AGE REACHED ITS MAXIMUM. THOUSANDS OF YEARS ALSO WENT BY AFTER THE DUST HAD SETTLED IN SOUTHERN EUROPE WHEN A NEW AMALGAMATED SOCIETY EMERGED. THIS DYNAMIC SOCIETY WAS NOT ONLY WELL VERSED IN AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, BUT ALSO WAS AT THE THRESHOLD OF ADVANCEMENT IN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. THESE PEOPLE WERE WORK-MOTIVATED , EAGER TO ADAPT, INVENT AND APPLY THEIR ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE. THEY WERE INFLUENCED SOMEWHAT BY THE CLIMATE OF THE TIME WHICH WAS A LITTLE COOLER, RAINIER AND MORE HUMID IN THE SUMMER. THESE PEOPLE WERE SPREAD ALONG SOUTHERN EUROPE FROM THE IBERIAN PENINSULA TO ASIA MINOR, HAVING THEIR HUB IN THE AEGEAN REGION. THE LAND IN THE AEGEAN WAS FERTILE, GOOD FOR AGRICULTURE, AND ABLE TO SUPPORT A LARGE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS (AS “PLATO” IN CRITIAS INDICATES). THE MORE INHABITANTS AN AREA IS ABLE TO SUPPORT, THE MORE SPECIALIZED PROFESSIONS PEOPLE WILL ACQUIRE, THUS FORMING AN ADVANCED SOCIETY, WHICH IN TURN NEEDS A MORE SOPHISTICATED FORM OF COMMUNICATION, LAWS AND GOVERNMENT.

F. COMMON EUROPEAN LANGUAGE.

AS WAS MENTIONED BEFORE, THE PROTO-EUROPEANS SPOKE A LIMITED FORM OF A COMMON LANGUAGE DUE TO THEIR GROUP INTERACTIONS. AS THEY SETTLED DOWN, THIS PROTO-LANGUAGE ADVANCED RAPIDLY IN THE SPOKEN AND THEN IN THE WRITTEN WORD IN ORDER TO FULFILL THEIR COMMUNICATION NEEDS. HOW MUCH TIME ELAPSED IS HARD TO ESTIMATE WHEN A COMPLEX EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION OF HIGH ORDER EMERGED TOGETHER WITH AN ADVANCED EUROPEAN LANGUAGE IN THE LEGENDARY “KINGDOM OF ATLANTIS”.

SINCE WE PRESENTLY HAVE ONLY FRAGMENTARY INFORMATION AT OUR DISPOSAL AND LITTLE OR NO KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THESE LOST CIVILIZATIONS OF THE PAST, WE GREATLY AND UNJUSTLY UNDERESTIMATE THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS AND THEIR MANY DISCIPLINES. EVENTUALLY, PROGRESS IN SCIENCE AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH WILL FILL IN SOME OF THE BLANKS OF OUR PROTO-EUROPEAN TIMES.

G. THE CIVILIZATION OF ATLANTIS.

IT WOULD BE AN UNJUST AND FUTILE ATTEMPT TO TRY TO DESCRIBE THE LOST CIVILIZATION OF ATLANTIS WHEN THE PHILOSOPHER PLATO HIMSELF DESCRIBED IT FOR US IN HIS DIALOGUES “TIMEUS AND CRITIAS”. CRITIAS TELLS US HOW THIS INFORMATION CAME TO HIM FROM HIS GREAT GRANDFATHER ” DROPIDES”. “DROPIDES” RECEIVED THIS MANUSCRIPT FROM THE ATHENIAN STATESMAN AND LAWGIVER “SOLON”. SOLON IN TURN OBTAINED THIS INFORMATION FROM THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTS OF SAIS WHEN HE TRAVELED THERE. THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTS SCOLDED HIM ABOUT THE IGNORANCE OF THE HELLENES REGARDING THEIR PAST. “YOUR CIVILIZATION IS OLDER THAN OURS” SOLON WAS TOLD, “BUT YOU ARE JUST CHILDREN WHEN KNOWING YOUR PAST”. THE PREHISTORIC CIVILIZATION OF THE ATHENIANS IN ALL PROBABILITY WAS PART OF AND FORMED OUT OF THE LEGENDARY ATLANTIS. THE POPULATION OF ATLANTIS, BASED ON THE (SOMEWHAT EXAGGERATED) SIZE OF THEIR ARMED FORCES AS DESCRIBED BY CRITIAS, WAS BETWEEN SIX TO TEN MILLION PEOPLE – A VERY LARGE NUMBER INDEED. IN A POPULATION OF THIS SIZE, ONE WILL FIND A RULING CLASS, (PROBABLY INCLUDING THE RELIGIOUS SECTOR), CRAFTSMEN, ARTISANS, LABORERS, AND OF COURSE, THE ONES WHO CULTIVATE THE EARTH.

H. END OF GLACIATION.

WHEN THE ICE AGE FINALLY CAME TO AN END, THE ICE SHEETS COVERING THE POLAR AREAS STARTED TO RETREAT. IT MAY HAVE TAKEN TENS, HUNDREDS OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF YEARS FOR THE RISING WATER OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO SPILL OVER AT THE PILLARS OF HERACLES AND INTO THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN AT AN EVER INCREASING RATE. IT ALSO MUST HAVE TAKEN SEVERAL YEARS FOR THE WATER LEVEL IN THE WESTERN BASIN TO RISE ENOUGH TO START SPILLING OVER AND INTO THE EASTERN PART OF THE MEDITERRANEAN. AS THE ICE STARTED RETREATING, THE BARREN LANDSCAPE OF NORTHERN EUROPE STARTED TO BE COLONIZED ONCE MORE, FIRST BY PLANTS THEN INSECTS AND BIRDS, AND LATER BY OTHER ANIMALS.

I. FORCED MIGRATION.

THE RISING WATER LEVEL IN THE MEDITERRANEAN FORCED THE INHABITANTS TO HIGHER GROUNDS. THE ATLANTEANS, WHO WERE INTELLIGENT ENOUGH, DID NOT TAKE LONG TO REALIZE WHAT WAS HAPPENING AROUND THEM. THEY MAY HAVE ATTRIBUTED THIS CALAMITY TO ACTS OF DEITIES OR TO NATURAL PHENOMENA, BUT FOR MOST PEOPLE IT WAS VERY HARD TO UNDERSTAND. A MASS MIGRATION MAY HAVE STARTED FROM THE ISLAND OF ATLANTIS IN ALL DIRECTIONS. THE MAJORITY WENT TOWARDS NORTHERN EUROPE WHICH WAS UNINHABITED AND NOW FREE FROM ICE. MANY MAY HAVE BEEN WELCOMED IN THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN BUT OTHERS MAY HAVE MET HOSTILITY. THE ATLANTEANS, HEADING TOWARDS NORTHERN EUROPE ,WERE OF A CIVILIZED AND TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED SOCIETY. THEY WERE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM THEIR HUNTER-GATHERER ANCESTORS OF MILLENNIUMS PAST.

THE NORTHWARD MIGRATION CONTINUED FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS. AS THE ATLANTEANS WERE SPREADING APART, THEY BECAME MORE ISOLATED FROM OTHER GROUPS HEADING NORTH. THIS ISOLATION HAD A DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THESE MIGRANTS. THE VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE THEY POSSESSED NEEDED APPLICATION AND APPLICATION IS VERY DIFFICULT WHEN PEOPLE ARE CONSTANTLY MOVING, TRYING TO SURVIVE AND CARRYING WITH THEM FEW OR NO TOOLS. A FEW TRACES OF THIS KNOWLEDGE CAN BE SEEN TODAY. TAKE FOR EXAMPLE THE STONEHENGE WHICH WAS PROBABLY CONSTRUCTED IN THAT DISTANT ERA. AFTER A FEW GENERATIONS, THEIR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WAS LOST, FORCING THEIR DESCENDANTS TO RETROGRESS TO NEOLITHIC CONDITIONS. THEIR RICH LANGUAGE BECAME SIMPLER WITH THE PASSING OF TIME, BUT IT WAS NOT LOST. FROM WHAT CAN BE SEEN TODAY AND BY ANALYZING THE RACES OF MAN, THEIRS WAS A NORTH, WEST, EAST MIGRATION WITH SMALL GROUPS SETTLING AND COLONIZING THE HIGHER GROUNDS AROUND THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN.

J. FLOOD, EARTHQUAKES, VOLCANIC ERUPTION AND FINAL DESTRUCTION.

ANCIENT MYTHS TALK ABOUT CATACLYSMS WITH CATASTROPHIC RESULTS. THE STORY MAY HAVE BEEN TOLD AND RETOLD THROUGH COUNTLESS GENERATIONS. THE WAY IN WHICH IT IS TOLD MAY CHANGE, BUT THE GENERAL MEANING USUALLY REMAINS THE SAME. WE MAY NEVER KNOW WHAT EXACTLY HAPPENED.

THE CLIMATE IN SOUTHERN EUROPE WAS CHANGING DUE TO THE RETREATING OF THE ICE SHEETS TO THE NORTH. THE WATER LEVEL WAS INCREASING IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN BASIN FORCING DOWN THE SEABED BELOW. THE EARTH CRUST FAULT THAT RUNS EAST-WEST THROUGH THE MEDITERRANEAN AND WHICH IS CREATED BY THE COLLISION AND SUBDUCTION OF THE AFRICAN UNDER THE EUROPEAN TECTONIC PLATE WAS CREATING EARTHQUAKES.

THE FORCE OF THE LITHOSPHERE ON THE MAGNA BELOW CAUSED THE MAGNA TO MOVE UPWARD THROUGH THE WEAKENED FAULT AREAS OF EXISTING OR NEWLY CREATED VOLCANOES. . THE NOW DORMANT VOLCANO ON THE PRESENT DAY HELLENIC ISLAND OF THERA (SANTORINI) ERUPTED WITH FAR GREATER FORCE THAN THAT OF KRAKATOA IN 1883 (WHOSE EXPLOSION WAS PRACTICALLY HEARD AROUND THE WORLD). KRAKATOA CREATED A FORTY METER HIGH TIDAL WAVE (TSUNAMI). . THE TIDAL WAVE THAT WAS CREATED BY THE VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF THERA MUST HAVE BEEN AT LEAST AS HIGH OR EVEN HIGHER THAN THAT OF KRAKATOA. THIS TIDAL WAVE NOT ONLY HAD AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT NEAR THE COASTAL AREAS, BUT ALSO DESTROYED ANY ATLANTEAN SETTLEMENTS CAUSING GREAT LOSS OF HUMAN LIFE. . “PLATO” TELLS US THAT BESIDES THE FLOOD AND EARTHQUAKES THERE WERE LANDSLIDES ALSO. LAND SLIDES OCCUR NOT ONLY DURING EARTH TREMORS BUT ALSO WHEN THE SOFT-SLOPED GROUND IS SATURATED WITH WATER DUE TO HEAVY, CONTINUOUS RAIN.

K. PLATO’S ATLANTIS.

NOW LET US EXAMINE AND COMPARE A FEW FACTS AND TRY TO FIND OUT PLATO’S VIEWS ABOUT THE INFORMATION HE SUPPLIED TO US.

  • HE TALKS ABOUT THE WAR BETWEEN THE ATHENIANS AGAINST THE ATLANTEANS AND THEIR MUTUAL DESTRUCTION FROM EARTHQUAKES AND FLOODS.. IF THE ATLANTEANS HAD DWELT BEYOND THE PILLARS OF HERACLES THEY WOULD NOT HAVE AN INGRESS THROUGH THE STRAIGHTS WITH THEIR FLEET TO ENGAGE IN WAR WITH THE ATHENIANS DUE TO THE EXISTING LAND-BRIDGE. OF COURSE, WE MAY NEVER KNOW THE REASON FOR THEIR CONFLICT.

 

  • CRITIAS FURTHER EXPLAINS THAT THE SURVIVING GENERATIONS ON THE MOUNTAINS REMAINED MOUNTAINOUS AND UNEDUCATED (OREION KAI AGRAMMATON) . THE SURVIVORS HAD SOME OBSCURE INFORMATION ABOUT THE NAMES OF THE LEADERS OF THE LAND, BUT THEY HAD HEARD LITTLE OR NOTHING ABOUT THEIR DEEDS. THEY WERE HAPPY TO GIVE THE NAMES OF THEIR ANCESTORS TO THEIR CHILDREN, BUT THEY WERE UNAWARE OF THE VIRTUES AND LAWS OF THE PAST.IT IS UNDERSTANDABLE THAT THE CONCERN OF THOSE WHO SURVIVED THE WAR, FLOOD AND EARTHQUAKES BY REACHING HIGH GROUND, WAS SURVIVAL. THE SAME IS TRUE FOR THE ONES MIGRATING TOWARDS NORTHERN EUROPE. IT TOOK PROBABLY ONLY A FEW GENERATIONS FOR SMALL GROUPS OF PEOPLE, SPREAD APART IN VAST EXPANSES OF LAND, TO RETROGRESS TO NEOLITHIC CONDITIONS.

 

  • SOLON, ACCORDING TO CRITIAS, INDICATES THAT CONTEMPORARY TO THE ATLANTEAN WOMEN, THEIR ATHENIAN COUNTERPARTS DID WHATEVER THEIR NATURE AND ABILITY DICTATED. IN OTHER WORDS THEY HAD THE SAME RIGHTS AS MEN, DOING WHATEVER THEY WERE ABLE AND WANTED TO DO.IT MUST BE NOTED THAT FREE LADIES OF HOMERIC TIMES HAD MORE RIGHTS AND FREEDOM THAN THE LADIES HAVE IN SOME OF THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF OUR TIMES.

 

  • CRITIAS INDICATES THAT THE ANCIENT ATHENIAN GUARDIANS NUMBERED TWENTY THOUSAND.IN ORDER TO SUPPORT TWENTY THOUSAND GUARDIANS WITH FOOD, (THAT WAS THE ONLY REQUIREMENT), A POPULATION OF THREE TO FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND INHABITANTS IS NECESSARY. THE LAND AREA BEFORE THE FLOOD WAS MORE THAN ENOUGH TO SUPPORT SUCH A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO IN TURN SUPPLIED THE NECESSARY FOOD FOR THE GUARDIANS.

 

  • CRITIAS, AS HE DESCRIBES THE LAND, LAMENTS OF WHAT WAS THEN AND WHAT IS NOW. “ONLY A FEW ISLANDS AND MOUNTAINS REMAIN LIKE THE BONES OF A DECEASED AND DECAYED BODY”. FURTHER HE POINTS TO THE REMAINING RUINS OF THE TEMPLES DEDICATED TO WATER NYMPHS AND OTHER DEITIES, TO PROVE THAT WATER ONCE WAS ABUNDANT. CRITIAS ALSO EXPLAINS HOW THE HEAVY RAINS AND EARTHQUAKES CAUSED LANDSLIDES BEFORE THE GREAT DESTRUCTION OF DEUCALION’S CATACLYSM.ONE CAN ONLY AGREE WITH CRITIAS’ STATEMENTS ABOUT THE LAND- SCAPE WHICH WAS ALTERED BY LAND SLIDES, EROSION, EARTHQUAKES AND FINALLY FLOOD.

 

  • CRITIAS DESCRIBES ATLANTIS NEARLY IN THE SAME WORDS AS SOLON, HIS ANCESTOR. CRITIAS ALSO INDICATES THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF ATLANTIS.AS IT WAS STATED PREVIOUSLY, THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF ATLANTIS IS STILL QUESTIONABLE. THEREFORE, WE SHOULD NOT COMPARE OUR PRESENT DAY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY TO THAT OF THE PAST AND JUDGE UNJUSTLY.

 

  • CRITIAS NARRATES THE ROYAL ATLANTEAN FAMILY OF THE GOD POSEIDON AND THE MORTAL WOMAN CLEITO.IT MUST BE NOTED HERE THAT IN THE HELLENIC HISTORY AND MYTHOLOGY, THERE ARE COUNTLESS INDICATIONS OF SUCH ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN GODS AND MORTAL WOMEN, GODDESSES AND MORTAL MEN.

 

  • CRITIAS POINTS TO THE GREAT ATLANTEAN ACHIEVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING AND ADMINISTRATION.IN A WAY, IT IS UNFAIR AND UNJUST TO ALLOW OURSELVES TO BE INFLUENCED BY NEARSIGHTED SHORTCOMINGS AND BIAS, AND NOT BE IN A POSITION TO RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE AND GIVE CREDIT TO THE ANCIENTS FOR THEIR GREAT SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS.

DEPENDING ON MATERIALS, MOST MANMADE OBJECTS DECAY AND VANISH WITH THE PASSING OF TIME. ONLY THE ONES CARVED OUT OF STONE TEND TO LAST. THE SPHINX AT GIZA IN EGYPT IS PROBABLY A REMNANT OF ATLANTEAN INFLUENCE IN THAT REGION AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF ATLANTIS. IT MIGHT HAVE BEEN BUILT BY ATLANTEANS WHO EVENTUALLY SETTLED THERE. THIS MONUMENT MUST BE OVER TWELVE THOUSAND YEARS OLD. THE ATLANTEANS WERE ABLE TO PRODUCE ORICHALCUM (OREICHALKOS). USING A COMPLICATED PROCESS PROBABLY KNOWN BUT NOT EXERCISED DURING THE TIME OF PLATO BUT DUPLICATED LATER BY THE ROMANS. CRITIAS SAYS “THE MARINAS WERE FULLY EQUIPPED”. THIS TELLS US THAT A CONTINUOUS FLOW OF GOODS FROM THE ATLANTEAN DOMAIN WAS TAKING PLACE DAY AND NIGHT. CRITIAS ALSO INDICATES THAT THE GUARD WAS PLACED ON THE SMALLEST WHEEL AND THE ROYAL GUARD WAS HOUSED WITHIN THE ACROPOLIS. THE ATLANTEAN ADMINISTRATION MUST HAVE BEEN WELL ORGANIZED AND THE ROYAL POWER ABSOLUTE. ALTHOUGH THE KINGS HAD TO OBEY POSEIDON’S LAWS INSCRIBED ON THE PILLAR WITHIN THE TEMPLE, EACH KING HAD ABSOLUTE AUTHORITY OVER HIS SUBJECTS. HE COULD PENALIZE OR EXECUTE ANYONE EXCEPT HIS OWN RELATIVES. IN THIS CASE HE HAD TO HAVE THE MAJORITY’S APPROVAL. ONE MIGHT CALL THIS ATLANTEAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT AN OLIGARCHY.

AFTER OUR BRIEF EXAMINATION OF THE FEW FACTS DESCRIBED PREVIOUSLY ONE MIGHT CONCLUDE THAT PLATO DESCRIBES THE FACTS AND PRESENTS THEM TO US FROM HIS OWN PLATONIAN PERSPECTIVE. UNFORTUNATELY, A ROSETA STONE ABOUT ATLANTIS HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED YET.

SOLON, THE ATHENIAN LAWGIVER, WROTE DOWN EXACTLY WHAT THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTS HAD TRANSLATED TO HIM, FROM THE SACRED RECORDS. SOLON, BEING WHO HE WAS, HAD NO REASON TO INVENT STORIES EITHER.

L. TODAY’S ATLANTEANS.

- WHO MIGHT BE TODAY’S MOST PURE DESCENDANTS OF THE ATLANTEANS?

ALTHOUGH ANYONE AROUND THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN, NEAR EAST AND EUROPE MAY CLAIM ATLANTEAN ANCESTRY, WE MAY POSITIVELY IDENTIFY SOME GROUPS OF PEOPLE AS MORE PURE DUE TO NATURAL BOUNDARY ISOLATION WHICH LASTED FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. SINCE THE DEMISE OF ATLANTIS, MANY MIGRATIONS OF PEOPLES TOOK PLACE. CIVILIZATIONS FLOURISHED AND VANISHED LEAVING BEHIND ONLY A FEW HEWN STONES AS TESTIMONY OF THEIR EXISTENCE. ONLY A FEW FRAGMENTED HISTORICAL RECORDS ARE AVAILABLE TO US TODAY BUT SOME DAY THEY MAY SHED SOME LIGHT AS TO WHAT MAY HAVE HAPPENED IN EONS PAST.

IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE MOST PURE DESCENDANTS OF THE ATLANTEANS, WE FIRST MUST EXAMINE THE AREAS WHERE THE ATLANTEANS EVENTUALLY FOUND REFUGE, AND SETTLED DOWN. THEN DETERMINE HOW MUCH THESE AREAS HAVE BEEN EFFECTED BY SUBSEQUENT MIGRATIONS OF PEOPLES OF NON-ATLANTEAN ORIGIN. (IT WOULD BE COMPLETELY UNJUSTIFIED AND BIASED TO STATE THAT OTHER GROUPS OF PEOPLE AROUND ATLANTIS WERE PHYSICALLY OR INTELLECTUALLY INFERIOR).

IN THE PAST, BORDERS WERE USUALLY DETERMINED BY NATURAL BOUNDARIES SUCH AS RIVERS, MOUNTAIN RANGES, AND OCEANS. A MOUNTAIN PASS CAN BE DEFENDED BY ONLY A FEW DEDICATED PEOPLE WHO HAVE A REASON TO PREVENT OTHERS FROM CROSSING OR ENCROACHING ON THEIR TERRITORY. A SEA SUCH AS THE MEDITERRANEAN CANNOT BE CONSIDERED A GOOD NATURAL BOUNDARY, BUT RATHER MEANS FOR EASY ACCESS TO MIGRATIONS. PEOPLE CLOSE TO THE SEA DID NOT ALWAYS SUCCEED IN DEFENDING THEIR TERRITORY AGAINST INVADERS. EVEN LARGE ISLANDS THAT COULD AFFORD A SIZABLE ARMY AND NAVY EVENTUALLY WERE SUBDUED AND OCCUPIED BY INVADERS. AND, AS IN OUR OWN “MODERN CIVILIZATION” , MOST OF THE ORIGINAL POPULATION WAS EITHER EXTERMINATED, ASSIMILATED, OR REPLACED BY THE NEWCOMERS.

THE SAME THING CANNOT BE SAID FOR THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. ONLY A FEW MARINERS VENTURED OUT IN THE ATLANTIC THROUGH THE PILLARS OF HERACLES AND ONLY FAR ENOUGH AS TO NOT LOSE SIGHT OF LAND. THEREFORE ONE MAY SAY FOR SURE THAT NORTHERN EUROPE DID NOT EXPERIENCE ANY INVADERS FROM THE WEST WHATSOEVER.

OTHER NATURAL BOUNDARIES OF NORTHERN EUROPE ARE THE VAST EXPANSES OF THE STEPPES, THE SIBERIAN COLD AND THE FEW MOUNTAIN RANGES TO THE SOUTHEAST. AGAIN ONE MIGHT SAY THAT NORTHERN EUROPE DID NOT EXPERIENCE ANY MIGRATIONS FROM THE EAST AS WELL. THE FEW ISOLATED ESKIMO GROUPS, LIVING TO THE NORTH HAD NO MEANS OR ANY REASON TO BE IN CONTACT WITH THEIR NEIGHBORS TO THE SOUTH. ANY LATER MIGRATIONS FROM THE SOUTHEAST MUST HAVE BEEN REPELLED BY THE NORTHERN EUROPEANS WHO THUS SUCCEEDED IN DEFENDING THEIR TERRITORIES.

APPARENTLY THEY PROTECTED EACH OF THEIR TERRITORIES LIKE THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES DID JUST BEFORE THE WHITE MAN OVERTURNED THEIR WORLD WITH HIS ARRIVAL ON THE NEW CONTINENT. THE ROMANS TRIED BUT DID NOT SUCCEED IN OCCUPYING ALL OF NORTHERN EUROPE DURING HISTORIC TIMES. SOME AREAS OF NORTHERN EUROPE REMAINED ISOLATED TO SOME EXTENT UNTIL RECENTLY.

BEING ISOLATED FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN THAT A PEOPLE’S WAY OF LIFE , NEEDS, PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND INTELLECT CHANGES MUCH THROUGH THE EONS.

WRITING WAS PROBABLY LIMITED AND USED BY A FEW PRIVILEGED PEOPLE. THE SPOKEN WORD WAS MODIFIED AND ALTERED OVER TIME.

AS IT HAS BEEN PREVIOUSLY STATED, THERE ARE MANY SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN LANGUAGES POINTING TO A COMMON AND ATLANTEAN ORIGIN. OTHER NON-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES BEAR SIMILARITIES AS WELL WHICH INDICATES THAT BEFORE ATLANTIS VANISHED, MANY ATLANTEANS MAY HAVE SETTLED ELSEWHERE.

ONE HAS TO CAREFULLY EXAMINE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ANCIENT WORDS WITH ROOTS TO THE ATLANTEAN POINT OF ORIGIN AND THE ONES SPOKEN BY THE NORTHERN EUROPEANS, ESPECIALLY THOSE NOT INFLUENCED BY THE ARRIVAL OF THE ROMANS.

ONE SHOULD ALSO EXAMINE THE SIMILARITIES OF DEEDS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE NORTHERN EUROPEANS TO THE ONES OF THE ATLANTEANS DESCRIBED BY CRITIAS.

“ALTHOUGH THROUGH THE EONS THEIR DIVINE PORTION HAS BEEN DILUTED TOO MANY TIMES” AS CRITIAS STOICALLY INDICATES, THE NORTHERN EUROPEANS OF TODAY ARE THE MOST PURE DESCENDANTS OF POSEIDON’S CHILDREN.

M. BIBLIOGRAPHY

PLATO’S ATLANTIS
TIMAIOS, KRITIAS, SOKRATES, ERMOKRATES
(TEXT IN ANCIENT HELLENIC LANGUAGE)

CARTOGRAPHIC DIVISION
THE HISTORIC MEDITERRANEAN
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, DECEMBER 1982

THOMAS O’NEILL
IRIAN JAYA
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC FEB. 1996

MATTHIAS SCHULZ
DAS PUZZLE DES PHILOSOPHEN
DER SPIEGEL Nr.53/28.12.98

THOMAS V. GAMKRELIDZE AND V.V. IVANOV
THE EARLY HISTORY OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN MARCH 1990

LYNDON H. LAROUCHE
ON ERATOSTHENES,……
THE NEW FEDERALIST JANUARY 4, 1999

TONY PAPERT
A PREHISTORIC MARITIME CULTURE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION
THE NEW FEDERALIST APRIL 19, 1999

VIATCHESLAV KOUDRIAVTSEV
ATLANTIS: NEW HYPOTHESIS. 1 NOV, 1997

ROULA PAPAGEORGIOU-HASKA
COSMOGONY THEOGONY. 06/05/96

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